Sudan Crisis Shelter Thematic Report

iMMAP Inc.
January 31, 2024
Thematic Report


The report aims to analyze the secondary impacts of shelter issues in Sudan and discuss possible solutions leveraging existing capacities. Given the large-scale displacement and pre-existing poor shelter conditions, it is critical to understand how these conditions impact populations amidst evolving conflict dynamics and how best to address them.

Contextual Background

In Sudan, humanitarian needs were at record levels even before the outbreak of the conflict in April 2023. The country has long faced challenges with internal displacement, stemming from various conflicts and environmental factors. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) have consistently faced poor shelter conditions, marked by overcrowding and inferior housing quality, along with widespread issues like limited privacy, inadequate lighting, and constrained access to vital household items. Humanitarian organizations' efforts to improve these conditions have been significantly hampered by funding constraints, with the shelter cluster only 43% funded on the revised 2023 HRP (FTS 24/01/2023). Findings from the 2023 HNO identified 2.9 million people in need of shelter and NFI assistance prior to the conflict, with three in four Sudanese living in damaged shelters and many reporting severe damages that compromised the structural safety of their houses or total structural collapse. Even families with more durable housing options struggled with poor living conditions. Inflation and sharp increases in the prices of goods have also reduced families’ purchasing power, limiting their ability to invest in shelter repair and maintenance. The most commonly reported shelter issues included leaks, cracked roofs, and partial roof collapses. Furthermore, findings from the 2022 MSNA showed that only a quarter of assessed households in the country had the security of tenure which protects tenants from forced eviction. For those living in camps and informal settlements, 73% of households reported having only collective types of occupancy arrangements, hence a large number of the population living in these areas were already facing HLP (Housing,

Land and property) concerns in the forms of property occupation, ownership, and rental disputes (OCHA 07/11/2022, MSNA 20/09/2022). In such a scenario, the current crisis and the subsequent mass damage to civilian housing and infrastructure have heightened concerns for shelter in an already fragile environment.

The continuation and intensification of hostilities in the past eight months, from the capital to most states in Darfur to Greater Kordofan and Al Jazirah state, have caused unprecedented displacement. IOM estimates that nearly 5.8 million people have been internally displaced since April 15, 2023, making Sudan the country with the largest internally displaced population in the world (IOM 29/12/2023). In recent months, the violence has grown considerably, as reports of brutal crimes committed against different ethnic groups have become rampant, leading to further displacement in states such as Gedaref, Aj Jazirah, and South Darfur (VOA 24/09/2023, UNHCR 22/11/2023, ACLED 17/11/2023, OCHA 14/12/2023, IOM 29/12/2023)

Report PDF